Silicene is the cosmic superstructural fractal equivalent of graphene (Graphene EM Fractal Cosmology) Single atomic hexagonal planes of silicon atoms are in a corrugated honeycomb structure that mimics the electrical conductivity properties of graphene, the best conductor of electricity known. Patrick Vogt created silicene by condensing (cooling) silicon vapor onto a silver plate, or metal. Silicon forms concentric rings inside the cores of dying red giant stars, and cosmic silicate dusts in molecular clouds helps form new stars.
A silicene two-dimensional sheet, rather than a three-dimensional silicon disordered crystal structure like quartz, has a buckled 2D honeycomb structure in which a few atoms are arranged above and below distinct energies, with applied voltage they jump across the gap allowing silicene to serve as an on-off transistor. The next goal is to grow silicene on insulators without attachment to silver metal. Outer space conditions are ideal for forming and organizing vast scale carbon and silicon 3D structures by electromagnetism. Proven examples are 3D solid particle buckyballs discovered near stars filling volumes larger than mount everest, that could only form by electromagnetism, and not by gravity.
fractal Si nanotechnology
Computer simulations reveal that some of the silicon dust grains will evaporate before being ejected by a star. Most silica ejected in the stellar superwind is about 300 nm sized silicon that forms molecular clouds and nebulae. Vaporized silicon ejected by stars could easily form vast two dimensional fractal hexagonal atomic planes of aligned silicene atoms along thin intersecting cosmic filaments that conduct electricity. Much of the sun’s surface consists of high temperature filaments composed of single atoms of ionized gas and metals.
New findings of gamma ray refraction proves Einstein’s relativity is wrong. The electromagnetic force holds everything together in the universe. This new discovery destroys previous beliefs that gamma rays do not refract light, and can never be used to focus light. New gamma ray studies can now be used to study the extremely high electric field of the atomic nucleus (no quantum gravity exists). Phony dark matter filament components that cause presumed gravitational lenses, are actually light bending of silicene and graphene fractal 3D superstructures connecting galaxies together.